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|© Michał Derela, 2000-2012||Major update: 16. 03. 2012|
The second Polish light armoured train used in World War II in 1939 was train Nr. 55 (former "Bartosz Głowacki"). For many years this unit was the most mysterious of Polish regular armoured trains, for there were no photos depicting its look in the 1930s available in popular sources. That is why sometimes it was erroneously regarded as the train of the same Austro-Hungarian type as the other light armoured train, the "Śmierć". Our knowledge of this train is almost complete now.
Note: In 2012 this article underwent major enhancement, thanks to help of Krzysztof Margasiński. (W) marks external links to relevant Wikipedia articles. You can also find places on maps, clicking coordinates in Wikipedia. Most of photos can be enlarged.
The original armoured train "Bartosz Głowacki" was created in August 1920 in Kraków (Cracow) (W), during the Polish-Soviet war (1919-1920) (W). At that time, the Red Army had repelled the Polish and allied forces from eastern Ukraine and was advancing towards Lviv and Warsaw. In July 1920, the Polish headquarters ordered a haste construction of several new armoured trains, to compensate for units lost during withdrawal fights. The Armoured Trains' Construction Management (KBPP) in Kraków raised two trains then: the "Śmierć" and the "Bartosz Głowacki". The later was assigned a number 20 (P.P. 20 - Pociąg pancerny - armoured train nr 20), after lost train "Generał Dowbor".
Bartosz Głowacki (W) (Wojciech Bartosz or Bartos) (~1758-1794) was a peasant, who gained the glory leading a scythemen assault on Russian cannons in the battle of Racławice (W) during Kosciuszko Insurrection in 1794. For his valour, Chief Tadeusz Kościuszko promoted him to officer and honoured with a noble name "Głowacki". It pronounces in English like: [ BAR-tosh Gwo-VAT-ski ].
|A Prussian locomotive G71 4460 Breslau, armoured in Warsaw, used in the "Bartosz Głowacki" in 1920 (probably up to 1924).|
|"Bartosz Głowacki" in 1920 - a commander Lt. Stanisław Pigoń with officers, Lt. Tadeusz Strumiłło and Lt. Olgierd Grzymała-Grzymałowski.|
The train was built of a stock of Prussian origin, armoured and armed in Poland. Originally it consisted of two covered artillery wagons, each with a 76 mm gun (or similar caliber), an open artillery wagon and several assault (infantry) wagons. The armament was supplemented by 10 machine guns (6 Bergmann LMG, the rest presumably Maxim heavy machine guns) and 70 rifles. Covered artillery wagons, converted from small open freight wagons, were armoured with steel plates and fitted with a central gun turret on a roof, with all-around arc of fire. The guns used were likely Russian M.1902 Putilov 76.2mm. The third artillery wagon was probably a flatcar with a revolving shielded gun mounting. Assault wagons were wooden freight box cars with loop-holes for machine guns and rifles and with observation or machine gun turrets on a roof. Typically such wagons were protected with concrete or double walls with sand layer. The train had a fully armoured in Poland Prussian locomotive G71 series (number 4460 Breslau). The crew in September 1920 was 8 officers, 37 NCO and 97 soldiers. Its first commander was Lt. Stanisław Pigoń (later an acknowledged philologist and professor, rector of university in Vilnius), and from October 1920, Lt. Marian Truskolaski.
The "Bartosz Głowacki" was completed in Cracow on 30 August 1920 and moved to Warsaw. On 2 September it was moved to a front, and assigned to the armoured trains' unit at a disposal of the 15th Infantry Division of the 4th Army (along with armoured train "Wilk" - Wolf). From 10 September "Bartosz Głowacki" operated on Czeremcha - Brest (W) line. During fights, two of its guns got damaged on 18 and 19 September, and the third gun blew up on 20 September, killing one crewmen and injuring four. The trains however helped to capture Svislach (W). After that, the train temporarily used borrowed field guns on flatcars. "Bartosz Głowacki" next took part in a battle of the Niemen River (W), supporting attack of Gen. Jung's group on Volkovysk (captured on 23 September). The train distinguished itself on 23 September, helping the 62nd Infantry Regiment to capture a village Polonka near Svislach. On 24/25 September at night, the trains covered Polish withdrawal from Volkovysk (W). At that time, the train had six wagons with two field guns and ten machine guns. After a truce, from November 1920 the train was under command of the 2nd Army and until summer of 1921 stationed in Lida (W).
|"Bartosz Głowacki" in 1920, during the Polish-Soviet war. The first artillery wagon has a train's name painted on a side, and a gun's name: "Maryś" (Mary), painted on a turret. Note a multi-color camouflage. In a background, there are partially armoured infantry wagons (probable nos. Altona Grn 16 760 and 10 555), and the second artillery wagon.
In its original composition, the train had two such artillery wagons, with a 76mm gun in a central turret, rebuilt from open Prussian freight wagons (nos. Ommku 66 293 and 103 250).
The train had also an infantry wagon Essen Ommku 248 025, open artillery wagon Würtemberg Rm 45 924 and two flatcars, nos. Danzig S 58 586 and Saarbrücken SL 25 536 [numbers according to K. Margasiński].
After the Polish-Soviet war, "Bartosz Glowacki" was assigned for further service, among 12 trains left. Its rolling stock was however soon replaced with more combat-worthy one. Its improvised infantry wagons returned to freight wagons' role, while small artillery wagons with central turrets were given to some other train, and next put to reserve.
Both original artillery wagons of "Głowacki", with central turrets, survived longer, than its newer wagons. In second half of 1920s they were probably assigned to one of 12 existing armoured trains, but there is no closer information. After a reduction of armoured trains' number, in 1930s they were in reserve, although they underwent a modernization then (cutting off corners to fit four MG ports, removing side doors, fitting standard 75mm wz.02/26 guns etc.). They were used in combat in 1939 in a Polish improvised training armoured train of the 2nd Armoured Train Unit, destroyed after fighting with German armoured units on 10 September in railway jam near Jarosław (W). After their capture by the Germans, the wagons were used in German armoured trains: Panzerzug 21 and Panzerzug 22, which remained active until a closing period of World War II (one of them was rearmed with a quadruple 20 mm Flakvierling AA gun ).
|"Bartosz Głowacki", around 1922-1923, with a new Warsaw type artillery wagon from PP.4 "Hallerczyk", with 76 mm M.1914 Lender gun, and new assault wagon (probably from PP.3 "Lis-Kula"), possibly during anti-strike action in Upper Silesia.|
Moving back in time: in late 1919 Polish Army intended to build several new broad-gauge armoured trains to use on Russian tracks 1524 mm (5ft, instead of standard gauge 1435 mm used in the rest of Europe). They were meant to support Polish units advancing to the East, without need of converting track to standard gauge. At that time, Poland operated some broad-gauge trains, that had been captured or converted from standard-gauge trains. The new trains were to be built using captured Soviet broad-gauge flatcars, gathered in this purpose in "Gerlach and Pulst" factory in Warsaw. A design was developed by the Armoured Trains' Construction Management (KBPP) in Warsaw. Their distinguishing feature was a construction of rounded narrow armour stripes, giving them rounded, "half-barrel" shape in cross-section. They were fit to be converted from broad gauge to standard gauge and back.
Due to war events (the Polish withdrawal in summer of 1920), the need of broad-gauge trains disappeared. Some wagons were however completed and used to reconstruct or reinforce existing armoured trains. Yet in spring 1920, such artillery wagons were used in trains: "Piłsudczyk" and "Lis-Kula", and in summer 1920 in "Hallerczyk" (photo), "Wilk", and "Reduta Ordona". Assault wagons were used, in different periods, in trains: "Paderewski", "Generał Sosnkowski", "Śmiały" and "Poznańczyk" (in the later two - until 1939) (the list is not comprehensive). The "Bartosz Głowacki" ultimately received two Warsaw-type artillery wagons and one assault wagon. At least one such artillery wagon from disbanded "Hallerczyk" was given to the "Głowacki" yet in 1921, along with steel infantry wagons of other type from other trains. Other stock used in that period is not known so far - possibly it retained also its old covered artillery wagons and G71 locomotive for some time.
|Warsaw type artillery wagon of "Bartosz Głowacki" after a modernization in 1930s. Note a camouflage from outbreak of 1920s/1930s, with jagged thick division lines (it is better visible on a drawing further on the page).|
In the winter of 1923/24, "Bartosz Głowacki" was demobilized and stored, along with most of Polish armoured trains. Apparently it has not been brought back from reserve to active service before World War II. In 1925, still in reserve, it was given a new number P.P.10 and assigned to the V Armoured Train Unit in Cracow, along with P.P.9 "Pierwszy Marszałek". According to K. Margasiński, both trains were to contain one single-turret Warsaw type artillery wagon, and one twin-turret Krasnoye Sormovo type ex-Soviet artillery wagon (two such wagons were used in "Pierwszy Marszałek" before and after that). Armament was to be three 76 mm guns and machine guns. "Głowacki" had a locomotive 73.376 assigned. At last, in December 1929, there was established a final composition of Polish armoured trains, and "Bartosz Głowacki" was fitted with two (or three) single-turret artillery wagons and one assault wagon, all of Warsaw type. It was also given a standard Ti3-10 armoured locomotive.
According to J. Magnuski, "Bartosz Głowacki" in interwar period had three artillery wagons and an assault wagon of Warsaw type, numbers: 630726 to 630729, including two wagons armed with 75mm guns and one wagon rearmed with 100 mm wz.14/19A howitzer. Recently revealed photos however confirm, that former "Bartosz Głowacki", captured by the Soviets in 1939, had only two artillery wagons, both armed with 75 mm guns - which was also a version present in traditional publications. The photos also confirm, that the howitzer-armed Warsaw type wagon no. 630 727 went to war with the mentioned improvised training train of the 2nd Armoured Train Unit, and was destroyed after the train's last fight near Jarosław.
In late 1920s or early 1930s the train's stock underwent some modernization. Its armament was standardized (75mm wz.02/26 guns and 7.92mm wz.08 Maxim MG's), it received radio and signal equipment and AA machine guns in artillery wagons. It was assigned to the 2st Armoured Train Unit (Dywizjon Pociągów Pancernych) in Niepołomice, near Kraków.
In 1939, former "Bartosz Glowacki" was mobilized as pociąg pancerny nr 55 - armoured train nr. 55 (the names were not used officially anymore).
( a map )
Armoured train nr. 55 (former "Bartosz Glowacki") was commanded by Cpt. Andrzej Podgórski.
On 28 August 1939 the train was moved from Niepołomice to Tłuszcz, where it remained until 3 September. Then, it was assigned to the Reserve Army "Prusy" (W), and during next week, between 4 and 12 September, it was moved from one place to another in a vicinity of Warsaw (Koluszki, Skierniewice, Warszawa, Mińsk Mazowiecki, Siedlce, Łuków, Międzyrzec), along with armoured train Nr. 53 ("Śmiały"). The train had no combat orders at that time, and only on 8 September it patrolled a track Skierniewice (W) - Żyrardów. It was planned to use the trains on 5 and 6 September near Piotrków and Łowicz respectively, but the track damage and jams prevented it. The trains were remaining without a contact with the enemy in that period, apart from several air raids against railway infrastructure, which did not do harm to armoured stock (on 5 September however, an auxiliary section of the train Nr. 53 was bombed at Koluszki (W) station, and both trains had to share Nr. 55 train's auxiliary section afterwards). The crews helped to fix damages to the track. On 10 September the trains had to overcome heavy railway jam between Mińsk Mazowiecki and Siedlce (W), removing bombed wagons and even building detours. On 11 September the crew of "Bartosz Głowacki" found an abandoned 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft gun in Łuków (W), which, seated upon a flatcar, remarkably strengthened the train's defence.
|Two TKS tankettes destroyed at Zhabinka. The one on a roadside is burnt and has a pierced right front gear hatch, the other one (later hauled away) has three holes in a lower front plate.|
Finally, both trains were moved to Brześć fortress (now: Brest (W), Belarus). The train Nr.55 first came into action on 14 September near Zhabinka (W) railway station, east of Brześć, where a reconnaissance unit of the 3rd Panzer Division was reported (a current satellite photo of the area). Four TKS tankettes of the train's armoured draisines were dismounted and sent southwards of the line, towards a bridge on the Mukhavets, but three of them were hit by the German armoured car platoon, standing on the bridge, and destroyed (luckily, without crew losses). An attempt to use the train's assault platoon failed in the German fire. Only the train's artillery made the enemy unit withdraw.
|"In a pursuit after two enemy tanks, a section entered Zhabinka. ...There, on a railway crossing, which they had crossed an hour ago without problems, stood an armoured train. From a last wagon, Polish gunners aimed guns at German vehicles. The commander quickly estimated a situation: "run, Heini, and back!" - he cried as loud as he could. Only a top speed could save everybody's lives. Both cars withdrew on reverse gear, too quickly for the train's gunners. The first round flew over heads and landed somewhere in a village..."||German relation of Corporal Pretschner, from a reconnaissance platoon.|
Soon after that, the train, standing on a crossing, halted and made retreat a column of the division, approaching on a road from north (from Kamenets), preceded by a motorcycle company. Several cars were destroyed in a process. Taking cover behind a hill, a group of tanks of the 5th Regiment made an attempt to cut the train's way back to Brześć, but the train's artillery foiled their movement. Next, the train was shelled by a battery of the 75th Artillery Regiment, and after about 45-minute duel, it withdrew to Brześć. One of the train's Renault tank draisines was damaged and left, apparently during an attempt to use it on a ground (photos in a section on draisines below). In this combat, the train successfully managed to delay a movement of elements of the German armoured division. Some German sources credited own units with a destruction of an armoured train in that skirmish afterwards, which was obviously false.
|The next TKS tankette destroyed in Zhabinka. Other photos show, that it had fire marks, a pierced lower front plate on the right and damaged muffler, possibly also a hole in a right side under a window. Visible are extenders on chassis frame, typical for tankettes used as draisines. This tankette was later pushed aside from a road to a field, turned on its roof, and again put on tracks.|
Since the German units captured a part of Brześć and its main railway station that day, the trains Nos. 55 and 53 were ordered to move south (crews had to load coal manually first, due to damages). After a short rest in Kovel on 18 September 1939, the commanders decided to go to Lwów (now Lviv (W), Ukraine), threatened by the German encirclement (W). The trains next broke through to Lwów, firing at German positions by the city on passing. The train Nr.55 was assigned to north-western defence sector, basing at Podzamcze station, while train Nr.53 was assigned to south-eastern sector. On 19 September train Nr. 55 supported a battalion of the 35th Infantry Division (Reserve) in a sortie from Lwów to Holosko (W) and no. 374 hill, in order to get in contact with the approaching Gen. Sosnkowski's army. In that action, the train got under fire of enemy artillery of the 1st Mountain Division, and suffered some damage. The wagons were damaged and a main steam pipe was pierced in a locomotive, though the casualties were not high (2 killed and several injuried). The train was pulled out back with an ordinary locomotive, but was incapable of further fighting. According to some sources, it was ready to action on 20 September in the morning, what seems plausible, considering good condition of armoured wagons after their capture, nevertheless there is no information on its further usage in combat. On 22 September 1939, Lwów surrendered to the Soviet soldiers, which had invaded Poland on 17 September (W), and just approached the city in accordance with German-Soviet line of division of Poland. Both armoured trains, Nos. 55 and 53 were captured by the Soviets in the city.
This was not the end of the train's life, though. The Soviets repaired the train, and put into service as an armoured train (BP or bepo - bronyepoyezd) of the 58th NKVD Regiment (the NKVD (W) armed forces were used as border security guards). It was probably used in a vicinity of Lviv, its further fate is not known so far. Most probably it was destroyed or abandoned during the Soviet withdrawal in June-July 1941. The assault wagon of "Bartosz Glowacki" was captured in 1941 in Lviv, and used until 1944 in the German train Panzerzug 10, created of ex-Soviet (former Polish) stock (the Soviet armoured trains had only two artillery wagons as a standard, without assault wagons, so it might have not been included into the BP of the 58th Regiment). The locomotive Ti3-10 was also reported in German service.
Main source for 1939 service: 
|Drawing: Arthur Przeczek|
|flatcar||artillery wagon||armoured locomotive||assault wagon||artillery wagon (2)||flatcar (2)|
An armoured train, as a military unit, consisted of: an armoured section, a platoon of armoured draisines and an unarmoured auxiliary section. Speaking of combat, by a phrase: "armoured train" I mean the armoured section of the train only. The auxiliary section was always accompanying the armoured section, when not involved in combat duties.
In 1939 the train had a standard camouflage of Polish vehicles, with irregular patches of brown-green and dark brown, airbrushed onto a greyish sand base. At the outbreak of 1920s/1930s there was an earlier camouflage, with probable colours: light grey, green and brown, separated with thick jagged black lines.
A standard locomotive for Polish armoured trains since 1927 was the armoured steam locomotive series Ti3 (former Prussian series G53). According to new findings, the locomotive used in "Bartosz Głowacki" was Ti3-10 (ex- G53-4015 Posen), built in 1904 by BMAG, number 3372. After being captured by the Soviets, it was given a number ZhBO-020 (ЖБО-020). This locomotive was later found in German service with a number 54 657 (probably captured in the USSR and stripped of armour).
Upon a tender, the locomotive had a commander's turret, equipped with a short-range radio RKB/C to contact the draisines, and an intercom to contact the wagons. It also had some optical and sonic means of internal communication (color lights, bells and horns). Maximum speed of a locomotive with armoured wagons was about 45 km/h (28 mph). More at Ti3 page.
|← One of two artillery wagons of the same type of Nr.55 armoured train, no. 630 728, photographed by the Soviets (it was next given a number ZhBO-021, while the second one: ZhBO-022).|
|Above: Early look of an artillery wagon of this type - no. 02006 from "Piłsudczyk" train.|
Below: a modernized wagon (a drawing based upon a photo)
In 1939, each wagon was armed with one 75mm wz.02/26 field gun (modified Russian 3in Putilov gun) in an end cylindrical turret, rotating at about 320°. Initially, in 1920s they had Russian 76.2mm wz.02 Putilov guns or 76.2mm wz.14 Lender guns or other guns of similar caliber. Other armament consisted initially of two machine guns in the sides and possibly one MG in a high turret (a drawing to the right shows the original wagon's look, nr 02006 of "Pilsudczyk"). By early 1930s, the wagons were modified, and since then they were armed with four 7.92mm wz.08 Maxim (MG-08) machine guns in standard cylindrical mountings, two on each side. There was also added the fifth anti-aircraft MG of the same type in a new roof turret (a maximum elevation was 90°). The ammunition carried in a wagon was presumably some 100-120 artillery rounds and some 3,750 rounds per each MG (in 250-round belts), like in other Polish wagons.
The wagon was built of rounded armour strips. Its thickness was up to 20mm, but it was probably made of boiler steel, not armour steel. The sides were probably covered with oak planks from the inside, like in other Polish wagons. The wagon had doors in end wall only, enabling passing between wagons, and hatches in a bottom. Crew was probably about 17-20 men (by comparison with twin turret wagons). Length was about 11.6 m
|Assault wagon from armoured train Nr. 55, captured by the Germans.|
The assault wagon in Polish nomenclature was intended for the transportation of an assault platoon. The origin of wagon no. 630 726 of Nr.55 armoured train was the same, as of artillery wagons (Polish-built in Warsaw upon ex-Soviet flatcar). It had also same design, lacking artillery turret, and same armour. The wagon had a two-leaf door in each side, and also doors in both end walls and hatches in a bottom. It was armed with four 7.92mm wz. 08 MG's in cylindrical mountings in sides. The ammunition was 3,750 rounds per MG. The assault platoon consisted of 32 men (1 officer, 7 NCO, 24 soldiers, with 2 LMGs). A total wagon's crew was about 40 (with signalmen and stretcher-bearers).
A photo depicts the assault wagon from armoured train Nr. 55, captured by the Germans in 1941 in Lviv and used next in armoured train Panzerzug 10, but there is no closer information on a date of the photo (whether it was captured in such state or it is abandoned by the Germans). In 1939 similar wagons were also used in trains Nr. 53 "Śmiały" and Nr. 12 ("Poznańczyk"), but they differed in a bottom armour skirt (in "Głowacki" - cut off, only the wheels covered, in "Śmiały" - full skirt, in "Poznańczyk" - partially cut-off). Moreover, this wagon differs from others having centrally placed doors on one side (as a standard they were offset) and lacks armoured trench shields with visors in the armour. It is hence probable, that it was converted from an artillery wagon.
In 1930s the assault wagon was equipped with a long-range radio RKD/P (range - up to 80km), placed in a separate radio cab in the middle of the wagon. The wagon was also fitted with a power generator, batteries and a large clothes line aerial on the roof with 7 masts in two rows (the wagon on the photo has its aerials removed).
The wagon's length was 11.6 m, width: 3.15 m, height (without aerial masts): 4.7 m, axle track: 6.1 m, axle pressure up to 14 t.
Train no. 55 was a light armoured train, so the crew of armoured section was probably only about 90 men - the whole armoured train's crew was probably up to 140-150.
On both ends of the armoured train, there were two flatcars. Their primary function was to protect the armoured train against mines or a derailment. There was an observer with a central brake gauge on the flatcar. They were also adapted to carry engineering materials (tools, rails and sleepers, logs, explosives etc.) and also bicycles and motorcycles (part of it was carried on the auxiliary train's flatcars). As it was described above, during the campaign the train took 40mm wz.36 Bofors AA gun onto one of flatcars, or additional one.
The standard flatcar series Pdkz (type VIIIC) was two-axle. Weight - about 10 t, load capacity - 17.5 t, length - 13 m (511 in), wheelbase - 8 m (315 in). Also other similar flatcars were used.
Each armoured train, mobilized in 1939, had a platoon of armoured draisines (scout rail vehicles). Train Nr. 55 had a standard armoured draisines platoon, consisting of:
- two R type armoured draisines (FT-17 tanks on rail chassis)
- four TKS type armoured draisines (TKS tankettes on rail runners)
Draisines usually acted in two units, consisting of: one R and two TK draisines. All the tanks could be easily detached from their rail chassis' and then used for ground reconnaissance tasks. The fifth TKS tankette was in reserve. See the details on armoured draisines page.
|Renault FT-17 tank of an armoured draisine R, damaged and abandoned in Zhabinka on 14 September 1939. Note also empty TKS draisine runners and, in a background, R draisine chassis. Few early photos suggest, that the tank initially had intact tracks and stood on a left track (according to its drive direction), only later it was pushed between tracks (apparently blocking both of them).|
Each armoured train, considered as a military unit, also included an unarmoured auxiliary section. The auxiliary section accompanied the combat section in operational movements and provided it with an accommodation and logistics support. It was manned by a platoon consisting of 1 officer, 21 NCO's and 26 soldiers. The length of the auxiliary section of the train was about 250 m (820 ft).
The auxiliary train consisted of: a locomotive, coaches for officers (2), wagons for NCOs (2) and soldiers (8), bureau wagon, ammunition wagons (2), a fuel store wagon, a technical store wagon, an armoury wagon, an ambulance coach, a kitchen coach, a workshop wagon, a coal wagon, a water tanker and flatcars (5) - some 23 carriages (source ). The coaches were three-axle Dy type, the wagons were by default two-axle freight wagons Kd type, the flatcars were two- or four-axle.
The auxiliary train also had two wz.34 half-tracked trucks, one truck (Polski FIAT 621?) and four motorcycles with sidecars CWS M-111 - carried upon three flatcars. Wz.34 half-tracks were in the repair patrol, and they could be equipped with a rail-riding device.
All corrections and additional informations or pictures are welcome!
1. Janusz Magnuski: "Pociag pancerny 'Śmiały' w trzech wojnach", Pelta, Warsaw 1996
2. Rajmund Szubański: "Polska broń pancerna 1939"; Warsaw 2004
3. Wolfgang Sawodny: "Die Panzerzüge des Deutschen Reiches"; EK Verlag, Freiburg 1996
4. "Pociagi pancerne 1918-1943", Bialystok 1999
5. Tadeusz Jurga: "Regularne jednostki Wojska Polskiego w 1939 r. Organizacja, działania bojowe..."; Warsaw 1975
6. Tadeusz Krawczak, Janusz Odziemkowski: "Polskie pociągi pancerne w wojnie obronnej Polski 1939r."; in: Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny nr. 100, Warsaw 1982
8. Janusz Magnuski, "50 lat września - Broń pancerna" in: Wojskowy Przegląd Techniczny, nr. 9/1989
10. Rajmund Szubański, "Pancerne boje września"; ZP Grupa, Warsaw 2009
16.03.2012 - major modernization and enhancement
23.08.2002 - page modernized, minor corrections
22.11.2001 - major update, corrected
15.02.2001 - major update, added photos and details.
19.11.2000 - I've excluded the current page from the "Smierc" train page.
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Text copyright to Michal Derela.