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|© Michal Derela, 1999-2019||Updated: 31. 01. 2019|
|A badge on train's wagon in 1920-21.|
By end of October 1918, the Great War was rapidly coming to an end, while the Austro-Hungarian Empire and army were disintegrating. Newly constituted Polish authorities started to gather Polish territories back from century-lasting German and Austrian occupationW, and gain arms from them to defend the independence. One of the most valuable acquisitions was a whole Austro-Hungarian armoured train, captured by the Polish underground military organization. It was next used by the Polish in wars against Western Ukraine, the Soviet Russia and in World War II.
Note: W marks external links to relevant Wikipedia articles.
|PP.2 "Śmiały" in 1920 – this artillery wagon (here with 8 cm M.5/8 gun) and infantry wagon will be later found in the "Śmierć". |
The Austro-Hungarian army employed at least 12 regular armoured trains during World War I. Most of them consisted of standard type armoured stock, but their detailed composition differed. Except for two strongest trains with two artillery wagons and one infantry wagon, hauled by two locomotives, most trains had one artillery wagon or sole infantry wagons, although their composition was later changing. One of strongest trains was seized at Kraków-Prokocim station in KrakówW by the underground Polish Military OrganizationW (POW) on 1 November 1918[note 1]. The captured train was in fact a mix of K.u.K PZ.III (Panzerzug III) and PZ.VIII armoured trains in their late composition – with one infantry wagon originally coming from the PZ.I and another from the PZ.IV (some sources claim it was the whole 3rd Armoured Train Division). It consisted of two armoured locomotives series 377, two standard type artillery wagons and two (or three) standard infantry wagons[note 2]. On 3 November 1918 the train was manned by the Polish crew, and soon divided into two trains: P.P.1 "Piłsudczyk" and P.P.2 "Śmiały", becoming first regular armoured trains of the Polish Army (even preceding officially acknowledged date of Polish independence, 11 November 1918). Each train was given one locomotive, one artillery wagon and one infantry wagon, and then completed with further Polish-built improvised armoured wagons. Both trains were at once moved to PrzemyślW and Lwów (Lviv)W, in order to defend these cities against Ukrainians note 3.
Both "Śmiały" and "Piłsudczyk" fought in Polish-Ukrainian war 1918-1919W and Polish-Soviet war 1919-1920W. In 1921 both trains were equipped with modern twin-turret artillery wagons of Polish design (type III). Old Austro-Hungarian artillery wagons of "Śmiały" and "Piłsudczyk" and the infantry wagon of "Śmiały" were given to armoured train "Zagończyk". After disbanding of "Zagończyk" in 1929, its three ex-Austro-Hungarian wagons were assigned to the armoured train "Śmierć". The other infantry wagon served in "Stefan Czarniecki" armoured train, also disbanded in 1929, and finally in "Pierwszy Marszałek". A final composition of Polish armoured trains was established in 1929/30.
|The "Śmierć" during a ceremony on 18 August 1920 at Grzegórzki station in Kraków – visible are: a part of wooden wagon, a steel-protected wagon no. 425627 (with truncated corners at one end) and the 73 class fully armoured locomotive. The steel wagon was later found, after modifications, in 1939 "Danuta" train. [family archive of M. Żurawska]|
Original armoured train "Śmierć" was created in August 1920 at Zieleniewski Factory in Kraków, and was assigned a number 23 (P.P. 23 - Pociąg pancerny – armoured train nr 23). At that time, the Red Army had repelled allied Polish and Ukrainian forces from eastern Ukraine and was advancing towards Lviv and Warsaw. In July 1920, the Polish headquarters ordered a haste construction of several new armoured trains, to compensate for units lost during withdrawal. The Armoured Trains' Construction Management (KBPP) in Cracov raised two trains: the "Śmierć" and the "Bartosz Głowacki". The first train was being constructed under a name "Śmierć komunie" (Death to the communism), in a spirit of Soviet trains' names, like "Smiert' Direktorii" (Death to the DirectorateW) or "Smiert' parazitam" (Death to parasites), but the Polish headquarters accepted only the name "Śmierć" (Death). A commander, Lt. Henryk Amrogowicz and most of the crew came from a destroyed wide-gauge train P.P.5 "Piłsudczyk-szeroki".
Because of military situation, not entirely completed train was handed to the Army on 18 August 1920 r. in Cracov and moved to front to Łowicz - Nieszawa area, assigned to the 5th Army. A great battle of WarsawW had just ended with the Polish victory by that time, so the train was moved to Lublin, assigned to the 3rd Army of the Central Front. It distinguished itself in fighting against Budionny's Konarmia (1st Cavalry Army)W near ZamośćW. In late September it was moved to Brest-Litovsk area and guarded a bridge on the Muchawiec (Mukhaviets). Then it was moved to Vilnius region. It took part in operation of occupying Vilnius, under a pretext of Gen. Żeligowski's "mutiny"W. As a result, a puppet country, Central LithuaniaW was created. Apparently in connection with it, the train was renamed "Pogoń" (The Chase, a coat of arm of LithuaniaW) – but soon renamed back (on 7 December 1920?).
Initially the train consisted mainly of improvised armoured rolling stock, made of covered wooden freight box wagons, protected with concrete and other materials. It had also at least one steel-protected infantry wagon (no. 425627), with distinctive truncated corners at one end, covering a brakesman's cab. According to K. Margasiński, it was composed of one artillery wagon with 8 cm (76.5 mm) fortress gun, two infantry wagons with machine guns, one searchlight wagon, two ammunition wagons and two flatcars. The Austrian 8 cm gun was probably fitted in ahead-firing casemate mounting. Other armament were 10 Russian Maxim 7.62 mm MGs, 2 Colt 7.62 mm M1895 MGsW and 130 rifles. Only in October 1920, after a ceasefire, the train received second, unknown artillery wagon. A photograph shows, that initially the train temporarily had kkStB class 73 locomotive with less common full armour, without commander's turret (probably it was 73.157, built in early August 1920 in Kraków for incomplete "Orzeł Biały" train, then used temporarily in the "Pierwszy Marszałek"). By 1 September 1920 the train received a fully-armoured G51-4018 locomotive (no information on its original railway direction).
This part created thanks to research by Krzysztof Margasiński.
|The "Śmierć" in early 1920s, with G51-4018 locomotive, armoured in Warsaw (according to an inscription), in an interesting camouflage. [collection of M. Sosenko]|
After the war, the "Śmierć" was among only twelve trains assigned for further service in June 1921, and was given new number 4 (P.P. 4) (earlier we wrote 8). Its commander in that period was Lt. Czesław Kowalski. The train's half-improvised rolling stock was changed to more valuable one. It should be noted, that Polish armoured trains underwent several organisation changes in 1920s, connected with swapping, reconstruction and sometimes renumbering of their stock, and only lately it became possible to research these changes, but not with full certainity. In winter of 1923/24, most of Polish armoured trains were demobilised and stored - among them was also "Śmierć". It created Armoured Train Unit II with the train "Paderewski". According to newest research by A. Jońca, it consisted at that time of:
In 1928, the "Śmierć" got its final assignement to the 1st Armoured Train Unit (1. Dywizjon Pociągów Pancernych) in LegionowoW near Warsaw. During last major reorganization of Polish trains in December 1929, their number was reduced to 10, and the "Śmierć" received its classic composition, of three ex-Austro-Hungarian wagons from the "Zagończyk": two artillery wagons (141164 and 141455) and the assault wagon (390243). In early 1930s, the train's stock underwent a modernization, like other Polish trains. It received radio and signal equipment and Westinghouse pneumatic brakes. The armoured locomotive was changed to typical Ti3 (G53) class, namely Ti3-5. The Austro-Hungarian artillery wagons were rebuilt, their armament was standardized (75 mm wz.02/26 guns and 7.92 mm wz.08 machine guns) and they received anti-aircraft machine gun turrets instead of obsolete superstructures. In late 1930s the train was painted in a standard three-color camouflage. It apparently had not been brought back from reserve to active service before a mobilization in 1939. However, on contrary to a majority of Polish trains, a composition in which the "Śmierć" went to another war, differed from its previously established one.
In August-September 1939, during a mobilization, the 1st Armoured Train Unit formed five trains, among them light armoured train Nr. 15 of former stock of the "Śmierć" (the names were not used anymore officially). For many years it was believed in publications, that the train Nr.15 had a composition of two Austro-Hungarian wagons armed with single 75 mm cannons, and one assault wagon of the same origin. Such version was also initially present on our page. Only recently it has been researched and confirmed with newly revealed photos, that during the mobilization the train was given an other artillery wagon, armed with a 100 mm howitzer, to strengthen its firepower. It was first not sure, if it received the howitzer wagon in addition to two original artillery wagons (like in article by J. Magnuski), but newest research reveal, that this wagon replaced one of cannon-armed wagons already in 1930s, and the train retained a standard composition of only two artillery wagons. There are no photos of a captured train that would show its both original wagons.
"Śmierć" ("Smierc" without Polish characters) means "Death". It is pronounced in English like: [ Shmy-air-tch ].
|The train Nr.15 at Modlin station, captured by the Germans. Especially visible is a new howitzer wagon.|
Lower photo courtesy of Artur Przeczek (photos of this wagon were revealed to wider public for the first time here).
The armoured train Nr. 15 was commanded by Cpt. (kapitan) Kazimierz Kubaszewski. The train was initially at the Polish C-in-C disposal. It completed its mobilization in Legionowo only on 4 September 1939, then was assigned to the Army "Modlin" (deployment map). During the next day, the train operated on a line Nasielsk (W) – Ciechanów (W), and along with the train Nr.13, appeared very useful, fulfilling reconnaissance duties and providing the Army staff with situation reports. One of its armoured draisines Tatra was destroyed that day by AT-guns during a patrol near Nasielsk town.
From 8 September the train was subordinated to Modlin fortress (W) Defence HQ. On the next day, due to a damaged bridge on the Bugo-Narew (W), the armoured train lost contact with its auxiliary section, and had to operate without it (the auxiliary section went to Legionowo, then to Warsaw). When German siege of Modlin started, from about 15 September, the train was used as a mobile artillery in the fortress area, manoeuvring on a several kilometer track between Modlin and Pomiechówek (W) stations. It was assigned to support a battalion of the 32nd Regiment of the 28th Infantry Division, holding Pomiechówek area. The train appeared quite efficient in supporting Polish defenders, firing at pointed targets and helping to repel enemy attacks. On 19 September it was even fighting an artillery duel with its German adversary - armoured train Panzerzug 7, acting on a track Nasielsk – Pomiechówek. On 22 September it supported Polish II/36 battalion in a successful night counter-attack near Pomiechówek, which repelled the enemy from a right bank of the Wkra river.
During the next days, the train was not used that much due to enemy artillery superiority and ammunition shortages in the fortress. The train was mainly staying in a railway track excavation near "Ostrołęka" fort at that time. On 25 September the assault wagon was hit and burned by enemy artillery. Also the locomotive was damaged and reportedly replaced with a regular one (photos taken by the Germans after the siege show the train with the armoured locomotive, although fire-damaged, so it was possibly moved with external locomotive). Finally, on 29 September, the lonely fortress surrendered as one of last points of resistance in Poland. The crew destroyed the train's armament then. The train Nr.15 was the last Polish fighting armoured train. It was not used by the Germans after its capture, although they had impressed into service seized Czechoslovak trains with the same Austro-Hungarian wagons.
Main source: 
|Left: a view from pedestrian bridge on the howitzer wagon. Visible is also AAMG turret and the locomotive.|
Right: the howitzer wagon with dismounted weapons, the locomotive Ti3-5 and original cannon wagon, captured in Modlin. A tender had been partially stripped down of armour. There is no assault wagon. In a background are ordinary locomotives (the first probably of Ty23 class). 
The light armoured train Nr. 15 consisted of:
|Drawing from late 1930s  - in 1939, the train had a howitzer wagon instead of one of artillery wagons or additional one|
|flatcar||artillery wagon||assault wagon||armoured locomotive||artillery wagon||flatcar|
|The locomotive Ti3-5 captured in Modlin [collection of A. Przeczek]|
A length of a whole armoured part (including flatcars), with two original artillery wagons, was 69 m (226 ft), weight: 215 t. "Śmierć" was a light armoured train, so the armoured section's crew was presumably only about 80 men (about 95 with the third artillery wagon). The whole armoured train's crew was probably up to 155. In 1939, the train was painted in standard three-color camouflage of Polish vehicles, consisting of brown-green and dark brown irregular patches upon a greyish sand basic color.
The armoured train, as a military unit, consisted of: an armoured section, a platoon of armoured draisines and an unarmoured auxiliary section. The armoured section and armoured draisines were the combat section of the armoured train, while the auxiliary section was supporting the operation of the combat section in respect of logistics and accommodation, and did not take part in combat.
A standard locomotive of Polish armoured trains from 1927 was the armoured steam locomotive series Ti3 (former Prussian series G53), fitted with full armour in Poland. The locomotive of Nr.15 train was Ti3-5 (former G53-4025 Danzig), manufactured in 1904 by Hanomag, factory number 4118. The locomotive had a standard command turret upon a tender and was fitted with a short-range radio RKB/C to contact the draisines (more on Ti3 page).
|Modified artillery wagon 153 650 in late 1930s. [1,4,9]|
|Turret of the wagon captured by the Germans in Modlin|
In the 1930s, armoured train Nr.15 ("Śmierć") had two two-axle artillery wagons of the standard Austro-Hungarian type, built by MAV railway workshops and MAVAG factory in Budapest (five were built). Their original numbers were 141164 and 141455, the later was changed in Polish service to 153650. Both were first used in Austro-Hungarian train PZ VIII, the wagon 141164 later in PZ III. In Poland they were used in armoured trains "Śmiały" (141164) and "Piłsudczyk" (141455), then both in "Zagończyk". In the 1930s they were modernized.
Each wagon was armed with one 75 mm wz. 02/26 (modified 3in Putilov) field gun in a turret at one end. At the beginning of the service, the wagons were armed with 7 cm (66 mm in fact) SFK L/30 naval guns, replaced in 1920 with Austro-Hungarian 8 cm (76.5 mm in fact) M.5/8 L/30 field gunsW. Armament change to 75 mm guns demanded lengthening of a gun mask. Horizontal angle of fire was about 240°. Other armament consisted of two 7.92 mm wz. 08 (Maxim) machine guns in cylindrical mountings in side doors. With partially open doors, the machine guns could flank-fire towards train's ends (a photo). It was Polish improvement of original wagons – first they had simple casemates for 8 mm Schwarzlose M.7/12 machine guns in the sides, and a door was in a rear end wall only. Also in the 1930s there was added one 7.92 mm wz. 08 anti-aircraft machine gun in a small turret on the roof, replacing an original high angular superstructure with one MG fixed towards the wagon's front and an observation cupola above. Maximum elevation of the AAMG was 90°. The ammunition carried in the wagon was presumably 3750 rounds per each MG (in 250-round belts) and 120 artillery rounds per gun, like in other Polish trains.
- a color drawing of an original wagon in "Śmiały"
- a drawing of a modified wagon
The armour thickness was 8 - 12mm. The wagons had no armour plating in fact, but were protected with 12 mm regular steel plates. Since Austro-Hungarian Army found the design too vulnerable to machine gun bullets, the protection was strengthened from the inside with 40 mm oak wood layer and the second layer of 9 mm sheet steel, which proved quite enough against machine gun bullets and splinters.
The wagon's length was 7.9 m; axle span - 3.6 m; weight - about 21 t. The crew was about 12-15 men .
|The howitzer wagon of the train Nr. 15 at Modlin station, captured by the Germans. [collection Arthur Przeczek]|
During the mobilization in 1939, the train Nr. 15 was equipped with a howitzer-armed artillery wagon, to strengthen its firepower, replacing the wagon no. 153650. It was two-axle, built in summer of 1920 in Lwów (Lviv), according to Polish design by KBPP Lwów armoured train construction management. It was used in the train "Piłsudczyk" in 1920-21, then completely rebuilt, retaining its configuration with a single turret at the end, but changing its look (its superstructure was made lower and got a rounded roof instead of angular one). Until mid-1930s it was without assignment. Probably it was built upon German open freight wagon Omku class, with 4.5 m axle span. It had number 430047 (formerly 248193).
The wagon was armed with one 100 mm wz. 14/19A howitzer in a turret, rotating at 360°. Initially it had Russian 122 mm howitzer. Other armament in final configuration consisted of two 7.92 mm wz. 08 Maxim machine guns in cylindrical mountings in wagon's sides and the third anti-aircraft wz.08 MG in a typical turret on a roof. There is no information about its armour – it was similar to other Polish armoured trains, possibly made of thick boiler steel.
|Assault wagon with Polish modifications and camouflage in late 1930s. [1,4]|
The assault wagon (Polish nomenclature) was intended for a transportation of an assault platoon. The two-axle assault wagon of the "Śmierć" was an original Austro-Hungarian infantry wagon, rebuilt in Poland in the 1930s. Its original number was S150 060, later changed in Polish service to 390243. Four hollow casemates for machine guns in sides were replaced with flat armour plates with Polish cylindrical MG mountings, and a two-leaf door was cut in each side, near the end (earlier it had doors in its end walls only). On contrary to the other such wagon in Polish service (in Nr.51 "Pierwszy Marszałek" train), it did not receive opening side sponsons. A small observation turret on a roof (offset to one wagon's end) was removed. It was first used in Austro-Hungarian armoured train PZ.I, then PZ.VIII, then, during the Polish-Soviet war, in the train "Śmiały".
The wagon's armament was four 7.92 mm wz.08 MG's in the sides. The ammunition was probably 3,750 per MG (in 250-round belts). The wagon had also numerous loopholes for rifles in sides. The armour was similar to artillery wagons. The assault platoon consisted of 32 men (1 officer, 7 NCOs, 24 soldiers, with 2 LMGs). A total wagon's crew was about 40 (with signalmen and stretcher-bearers).
Since early 1930s, the assault wagon was equipped with a long-range radio RKD/P (range - up to 100km), placed in a separate radio cab in the middle of the wagon. The wagon was fitted with a power generator, batteries and a large clothes line aerial on the roof, with two rows of five masts (differing from the wagon in Nr.51 train). Apart from doors in both sides and end walls, the wagon also had a hatch in a bottom. The wagon's length was 7.90 m, axle span - 3.6 m.
- a drawing of a modified wagon
|Left: Locomotive Ti3-5 with a fire-damaged driver's cab.|
Right: Burned out assault wagon, with a damaged axle, and both artillery wagons, in Modlin, winter 1939/40.
On both ends of the armoured train there were two two-axle flatcars. Their primary function was to carry engineering materials for track repairing (tools, rails and sleepers, logs, explosives etc.). The second purpose was to protect the train against mines or a derailment. During march, there could be an observer upon the flatcar, operating braking valve.
The standard flatcar was series Pdkz, type VIIIC (or Pdks series according to some publications). Its weight was about 10 t, load capacity - 17.5 t, length - 13 m (511 in), wheelbase - 8 m (315 in). Special flatcars for armoured trains were modified by fitting three full-width boxes for tools underneath a chassis and 22 lockers for small parts in the chassis, but there were not enough of them (Nr.15 train had one modified flatcar and probably one standard one).
|Tatra draisine of the train Nr.15 destroyed on 5 September 1939 near Nasielsk.|
Each Polish armoured train in 1939 had a platoon of armoured draisines (scout rail vehicles). The train Nr.15 had non-standard platoon of only two older draisines Tatra.
Each armoured train, considered as a military unit, also included an unarmoured auxiliary section. The auxiliary section accompanied the combat section in operational movements and provided it with an accommodation and logistics support. It was manned by a platoon consisting of 1 officer, 21 NCO's and 26 soldiers. The length of the auxiliary section of the train was about 250 m (820 ft).
The auxiliary train consisted of: a locomotive, coaches for officers (2), wagons for NCOs (2) and soldiers (8), bureau wagon, ammunition wagons (2), fuel store wagon, technical store wagon, ambulance wagon, kitchen wagon, workshop wagon, open coal wagon, water tanker and flatcars (5) - some 27 carriages in all. According to other sources there were only 3 flatcars, but also non-regulation food store wagon and sometimes guard wagon. The coaches were three-axle Dy series, the wagons were by default two-axle adapted boxcars Kd series.
The auxiliary train also should have two wz.34 half-tracked trucks, one truck (2.5t Polski FIAT 621?) and four motorcycles with sidecars CWS M-111 - carried upon three flatcars, although actual composition differed and might have contained other cars. Wz.34 half-tracks were in the repair patrol, and they could be equipped with a rail-riding device.
All corrections and additional information or better pictures are welcome!
Our Thanks to Jarkko Vihavainen, Jerzy S. Prajzner, Arthur Przeczek and Krzysztof Margasiński.
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Text copyright Michal Derela © 1999-2019
All photos and pictures remain the property of their owners, unless they are public domain. They are published in non-commercial educational and research purpose. Uncredited photos (and some of credited ones) were mostly taken by unknown German soldiers.