|"Generał Dowbor". Well visible are unoriginal wheel covers and repaired roof of the leading wagon.|
Among numerous armoured trains used by the Polish Army there were two examples of the only standardized First World War armoured train designs. Apart from well-known Austro-Hungarian armoured train, the wagons of which served in Polish trains: "Piłsudczyk", "Śmiały" and "Śmierć", the Poles used also one of four built Russian standard First World War armoured trains Hunhuz type. It remained in service over a year, from its capture on 24 May 1919 until its loss on 6 June 1920. Thanks to its unique composition, this train is relatively well-known among Polish armoured trains of Polish-Bolshevik war and is impossible to be mistaken with other units, usually partly improvised.
Note: links with dashed underline lead to Wikipedia articles.
|Russian armoured train "Hunhuz" – the first of this type, during commissioning ceremony on 1 September 1915. Possibly one of its wagons (or both) was found in "Generał Dowbor" train.|
|The train "Hunhuz" following its destruction on 24 September 1915|
The first armoured train in Russia during World War I was built as soon as in August 1914. Soon it was followed by several more, but they all were half-improvised units, differing from each other (like armoured train of the 4th railway battalion). The first armored trains, however, achieved some success in the Southwestern Front at the beginning of the First World War. This prompted the Russian command to increase numbers of these means of combat and start building them on a larger scale. In total, during the war, ten armoured trains were formed in European part of Russia, of which four belonged to the only standard type described on this page, and four more were built in the Caucasus.
Dates in this chapter according to Old Style
A standard broad gage armoured train was designed in late June 1915 in the 2nd Zaamurskaya (Trans-Amur) Railway Brigade, commanded by General-major Mikhail Kolobov. It consisted of an armoured locomotive O class and two identical armoured wagons, armed with one 3-inch mountain gun in end turret and 12 machine guns. A construction was carried out by the 4th Company of the 2nd Battalion of the brigade, in the main workshops of the Southern-Western Railways in Kiev, under supervision of Captain Daniel. According to all Russian publications, four such trains were built.
The first train was completed by 1 September 1915, and bore a name: "Hunhuz" (or "Khunkhuz" – Хунхуз), painted on a locomotive cab, meaning fierce Chinese bandits (Honghuzi). The name was possibly unofficial, apparently given by the 2nd Brigade in connection with its service in protection of Chinese Eastern Railway. According to newer works by M. Kolomiets, this name is not found in any documents, it has been however popularized in modern literature as a designation of the type of standard trains of the 2nd Trans-Amur Railway Brigade.
On 2 September 1915 the train was assigned to the 1st Zaamurskiy (Trans-Amur) Railway Battalion, and then sent to the front, Kovel – Sarny line, under command of Lt. Krapivnikov. During its first action against Austro-Hungarian positions at dawn of 24 September 1915, near Rudechka station (now Tsuman) on Rivne – Kovel line, the train initially enjoyed some success, forcing the enemy to abandon two lines of trenches. The crew managed to disconnect front flatcar, which had derailed on trench line. However, Austrian heavy artillery managed to destroy the track behind the train, and withdrawing train got derailed. Then it was destroyed by the artillery and abandoned. The crew of the front gun, who shoot 73 rounds, were killed. The train stood on a "no-man's land" and only on 12 January 1916 its rear artillery wagon was evacuated towards Russian positions on repaired track. In 1917 this wagon was in Kiev, without artillery armament. The rest of the train was recovered after Russian offensive in summer of 1916, but according to M. Kolomiets, it was scrapped because it could not be repaired. However, there is also a hypothesis, that the second wagon was repaired as well in fact (the damage, although extensive, seems repairable, and there was no internal explosion).
|Russian armoured train "Hunhuz” [drawing V. But]|
|Russian armoured train Nr. 3 of improved Hunhuz type, summer of 1916 – corner machine gun slotes replaced loop holes in transversal wall.|
According to M. Kolomiets and other Russian authors, by October 1915 another three trains of this type were built in Kiev – of which the last two had improved course machine gun mountings with greater field of fire. They were assigned to all three battalions of the 2nd Trans-Amur Railway Brigade, in ranks of the Southwestern Front, including the 1st battalion again. Initially Russian armoured trains had no uniform numbers, but were distinguished by names of railway battalions operating them (Russian abbreviation: zhelbat). Only in 1916 they got assigned numbers, but they were a subject to change when the trains were moved between fronts. Initially standard trains did not take part in combat. Two of them were moved to the Western Front for use in the offensive at Lake Naroch in March 1916, but they were not used there due to the damaged railway network (they carried numbers 2 and 3 there). In April 1916, the train of the 1st battalion was handed over to His Majesty's Own Railway Regiment and was modernized in Minsk, placing an additional 76 mm cannon above the tender (this train returned to the 1st Trans-Amur Battalion in spring of 1917, after the February Revolution). In June 1916, two trains of this type took part along with others in Brusilov offensive of the Southwestern Front. The armoured train of the 3rd battalion (No. 5) distinguished itself there, supporting the 11 Pskov Infantry Regiment at night of 14/15 July 1916. Then there was a break from intense combat operations. In May 1917, the train of the 2nd Trans-Amur battalion carried number 2, the train of the 1st Trans-Amur battalion – number 3, and the train of the 3rd Trans-Amur battalion – number 5. After the February Revolution and the subsequent decomposition of Russian Army, the crews of trains No. 3 and 5 joined the so-called "Death squads", characterized by the maintenance of discipline. The October Revolution of 1917 found the armored train No. 5 under repair in Odessa, and the train No. 3 under repair in Kiev. Train no. 2, according to older publications, was also under repair in Odessa, and according to newer ones, it was in Shepetivka at the end of November.
|Czechoslovak armoured train "Orlik" at Siberia, winter 1919 – in a foreground two rebuilt wagons of improved Hunhuz type, of former Nr. 3 train.|
The history of Russian armoured trains in 1917-20 years is still poorly researched, which is hampered by severe shortages of documents (and reported limited freedom to conduct historical research in Russia in late Putin times). According to older Russian publications, the stock of armoured train Nr. 5 was included in the Ukrainian armoured train "Sichevik" in 1918 and then Polish "General Dowbor", and this version was also present on our page until 2021. In the latest publication, however, M. Kolomiets states that the train No. 5 was taken over in Odessa by the Ukrainian Central Council, and already in January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. Finally, with rebuilt wagons with extended open field gun positions, it became the Soviet train No. 27 "2-i Sibirskiy" ("The 2nd Siberian"), then captured by the whites and included in the train "Officer". Probably it was the rolling stock of the train No. 2, which constituted the Bolshevik train "Tovarishch Voroshilov" (Comrade Voroshilov), captured on 21 April 1919 by the Ukrainian forces and renamed "Sichovyi Strilets". According to Kolomiets, its origin from the train of the 2nd Trans-Amur battalion is indicated by early artillery wagons with forward-shooting loop-holes for machine guns – although this author provides for a possibility that one of them may have been the wagon of the original "Hunhuz" repaired in Kiev. There is also however a hypothesis, which has not yet been covered in Russian publications, that only three Hunhuz type trains were built and the "Tovarishch Voroshilov" had both cars of the original "Hunhuz". The signs of heavy repairs of wagons' armour and a removal of cannon armament may support this version. The last train No. 3 passed through Ukrainian ("Vilna Ukraina"), Bolshevik (No. 4 "Polupanovtsy"), Czechoslovak ("Orlik") and finally ... Chinese hands.
The documented history of the train being the main hero of the article begins on 21 April 1919, when the Ukrainian (Petlurian) Sich Riflemen captured the Bolshevik train "Tovarishch Voroshilov" between Dertka and Myropil. Also, according to the Polish account of Lt. Podhorski, the train was originally called "Comrade Voroshilov", which could still be seen on the poorly repainted carriages. However, there is no information on the formation and service of the Soviet train named after Kliment Voroshilov. The captured train was incorporated into the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic under the name of "Sichovyi Strilets". The crew, together with the commander ensign O. Budkievich, came from the first train of that name, lost earlier that month (the former Russian train No. 4 of engineer Ball's design). Also the locomotive of the train, with a similar type of armor as the original one, came from the first "Sichovyi Strilets" (train No. 4). During its short career, the second "Sichovyi Strilets" took part in skirmishes with the Bolsheviks, and then with Polish forces, during the Polish-Ukrainian war. At the time of its capture by the Poles, it had two original armoured wagons, but without cannons (described as machine gun wagons), two flatcars and perhaps an improvised armoured wagon with a field cannon, and an improvised wagon for ammunition and staff [note 1]. In Polish sources, there is an abbreviated form of the name used: "Siczowyj" ("Sichovyi"), and in Russian literature, incorrect one: "Sichevik".
|The train shortly after capuring by Polish uhlans (pictured), with a temporary name: "Krechowiak". An unknown covered freight wagon (possibly armed) is visible at the end.|
In the second half of May 1919, "Sichovyi Strilets" operated on the Brody - Dubno - Zdołbunów line. At that time, Polish 1st Krechowce Uhlan Regiment (1 Pułk Ułanów Krechowieckich) was tasked with capturing the railway junctions: Brody and Radyvyliv (Radziwiłłów). The regiment was ahead of its own forces for three days of march and on 22 May 1919 it captured both Brody and Radziwiłłów. At that time, the Bolsheviks approached Zdolbuniv. The surrounded Ukrainian forces withdrew southwards towards Galicia, while the train, cut-off between Zdolbuniv and Radyvyliv, attempted to break through towards Zlochiv through Radyvyliv and Krasne. On 24 May it passed through Radziwiłłów, firing at the station, then it moved to Brody, also shelling the city. The first squadron of the 1st Uhlan Regiment destroyed the tracks between Radyvyliv and Zdolbunov. The "Sichovyi Strilets" moved back to Radyvyliv, where it was surrounded and captured on 24 May 1919 by the dismounted 2nd squadron of the 1st Krechowce Uhlan Regiment. According to Polish information, the crew surrendered. The machine guns of the captured train were out of order (possibly damaged by the crew) and were next replaced with new ones, found in Radziwiłłów depots. It should be noted that Russian and Ukrainian publications wrongly indicate that the train was captured 70 km further east at the Ozierany station between Dubno and Zdolbuniv[4,5], which contradicts detailed Polish reports. The leading armoured wagon of the train showed signs of repairing serious damage – an inaccurately fitted part of the roof and a makeshift cover of one loop-hole on the right side; it also had simpler non-opening wheel covers. In turn, the rear wagon apparently had a rotating turret dismantled and replaced by a fixed cover of the same conical shape with embrasures for machine guns (probably also a damage repair effect).
|A map of "Generał Dowbor" operation area with current Ukrainian names (W. Mroczek/M. Derela)|
|Rear artillery wagon, 27 June 1919. A commemorative lance with 1st Uhlan Regiment pennant was stuck on the tender. Apparently the turret is not revolving in this wagon (it might have been leading wagon of the "Hunhuz").|
|The locomotive and leading wagon of "General Dowbor" – visible is a dent between plates of repaired roof, and simpler wheel covers.|
Just after being captured by the Poles, the train was first named "Krechowiak", in a favour of its seizers (Krechowiak – a member of the Krechowce uhlan regiment, named after a charge on Krechowce). However, on 25 May the train was moved to Brody, where it was officially renamed as "Generał Dowbor" (in a favour of General Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki). There also exists in documents a full version "Generał Dowbor-Muśnicki", or common incorrect version "Generał Dowbór". It was manned by temporary cavalry crew then. Acting commander became cadet Wacław Komorowski of the 1st Uhlan Regiment, machine gunners were also uhlans from this regiment, supplemented by artillery gunners of the 2nd mounted artillery battalion. At that time at the latest, the train received an improvised wagon with a field cannon [note 1]. In early June, after first fighting, the uhlans returned to their regiment, and the train was taken over by a professional crew, commanded by Cpt. Michal Golikow. The train was next enlisted as Polish regular armoured train number 20 (Pociąg Pancerny nr 20 - PP 20).
"General Dowbor" took part in combat from 28 May 1919, in defense of Radyviliv. According to K. Margasiński, at the beginning of June "General Dowbor" fought the Bolsheviks attacking from Dubno and as a result of this attack, which was part of the Soviet offensive, was forced to withdraw as far as Krasne station. Taking part in the Polish counteroffensive at the turn of July and August, "General Dowbor" set off again towards Brody and further, fighting the Bolsheviks and repairing previously blown up tracks and bridges. Four soldiers from the train crew were seriously injured near Dubno station, while repairing the damaged bridge. As a result of this operation, "General Dowbor" reached Dubno on August 11, and Zdolbuniv on August 13. At that time, the commander was changed to lieutenant Izydor Kowalewski (however, according to K. Margasiński, he took command only from 30 January 1920). In Zdolbuniv, an improvised four-axle artillery wagon with two 76 mm field cannons was also attached to the train.
At the end of August 1919, "Generał Dowbor" reached Slavuta railway station, and in September it moved to the Shepetivka, where it stayed for two months. At that time, it was patrolling the railway in the directions to Zwiahel and Myropil. The train was in contact with the forces of the Ukrainian People's Republic of Petliura (which was already neutral at that time, soon allied), and the "white" army of General Denikin. After leaving Shepetivka, Myropil station became a permanent base for the train since December. "General Dowbor" was leading patrols and skirmishes with the Bolsheviks on a line towards Chudniv (in the vicinity of the villages of Pechenovka, Vroblovka and Romanovka). During the raid with the battalion of the 13th Infantry Division on 28 February 1920, it was threatened with being cut off by the Bolsheviks, who blew up the bridge at the rear, but thanks to the presence of infantry, it was possible to repel the enemy and repair the bridge. On 2 March, PP 20 left to rest in Rivne, from where it returned on 25 March 1920. At that time, its duties were taken over by PP 21 "Generał Listowski". Then, together with the 57th Infantry Regiment, the train again patrolled the railway towards Pechenovka, rebuilding damaged railway bridges, damaged tracks and fighting with the Bolsheviks. On March 30, there was a skirmish between patrols in the village of Romanovka, which was shelled by the artillery of the train, and the Bolshevik cavalry near the village of Vroblovka tried to destroy the track to cut off the train, but was repulsed.
On 25 April 1920 there started Polish and Ukrainian offensive towards Kiev, against the Soviets. On 28 April the train set off towards Kiev (due to the destruction of the bridge near Chudniv, by a roundabout road, through Shepetivka, Zwiahel, Zhitomir and Berdychiv), reaching Fastiv on 31 April. At that time, it was assigned to the 15th Infantry Division. The train was in Fastiv between May 1 and 4, patrolling the line to Bila Tserkva. On 5 May it set off towards Kiev, where it arrived on the same day as the first Polish armoured train. It stationed in liberated Kiev until 24 May, when it set off to Darnytsia railway station, located on the other side of the Dneper. It operated east of Kiev on Darnica – Brovary railway line, fighting frequent skirmishes with Bolshevik troops, being one of Polish trains that reached farthest towards east (the "Groźny" train operated on the parallel line to Boryspil). On 2 June "General Dowbor", on its line, together with the 41st Infantry Regiment, took part in a foray into the village of Trebukhiv, which was a diversion for a main partly successful foray into Boryspil. Shortly after that, the train was withdrawn from Darnytsia to Fastiv, from where it was conducting patrols.
|"Generał Dowbor". It seems, that the revolving turret was replaced with a conical cover with machine gun loop holes.|
On 6 June 1920, the 2nd Brigade of the 14th Cavalry Division of Budyonny's 1st Cavalry Army, after breaking the front the previous day, broke into the Popielnia station. The "General Dowbór", present there, managed to flee south towards Koziatyn, shooting back. The train rode full steam at the Brovki station, already occupied by the 14th Cavalry Division. Taking advantage of the surprise effect, the train inflicted losses on the enemy and drove the red cavalry from the station. Attaching a freight train standing on the tracks (30 wagons with flour, sugar and ammunition), "General Dowbor" drove away. However, after travelling few kilometers south, on the same day, the train encountered Budyonny's 4th Cavalry Division, which dismantled the track near the village of Vcheraishe. According to Budyonny's diary, after a short battle, the train crew of 4 officers and 100 soldiers surrendered, and the train itself was captured by the Bolsheviks. According to Polish accounts, over a dozen prisoners, mostly officers, were murdered afterwards; some of crewmen escaped.
Often encountered – and also presented on our website until 2021 – is the erroneous date of the train's destruction on June 23, 1920, resulting from published account of a crew member. According to this version, "General Dowbor" drove from Darnytsia to Fastiv after June 10 and on June 23 it entered the line to Bila Tserkva, however, before this station, the Bolsheviks blew up a railway bridge right after the train passed over it. The train was forced to go towards Berdychiv(?). On the Berdychiv line, the Bolsheviks sent a speeding locomotive against the armoured train, crashing and derailing it. Some of the crew died or were seriously injured, and when the ammunition ran out, others surrendered. While disarming, a dozen or so were murdered, the rest were taken prisoner. According to this version, the auxiliary section of the armoured train, which avoided destruction, left for Kiev on June 24, and then for Dubno. The author of this account, who is not known by name, was however clearly in the auxiliary section and hence did not witness the destruction of the armored train, and he gives obviously wrong dates and places in addition (by June 23 Kiev was long lost and the front was several hundred kilometers west). The fact, that the locomotive was sent against the armoured train is difficult to verify, lacking confirmation in Russian accounts, but it was possible. It is confirmed in other accounts, that over a dozen prisoners, mostly officers, were murdered (17 according to one account).
|Rebuilt armoured wagon in Soviet BP Nr. 112.|
The surviving part of the crew, being in an auxiliary train at that time, was assigned to trains nr. 21 "General Listowski" and nr. 14 "Zagończyk".
The derailed train was overhauled by the Soviets – at least one armoured wagon was assigned to Soviet BP Nr. 112 armoured train. It was fitted with a high "dustbin" machine gun turret on a roof and two standard side machine gun mountings of Briansk works type, allowing for a greater angle of fire, than loop-holes. Probably original armoured locomotive of Russian armoured train Nr. 2, not included into "General Dowbor", was used in oher Soviet trains, among ohers BP Nr. 66 "Uglekop".
At the time of entering the Russian service and being captured by the Poles, the armoured train "General Dowbor" (former Russian train nr. 2 and Ukrainian "Sichovyi Strilets"), consisted of an armoured locomotive and two armoured wagons of the Hunhuz type (for artillery and machine guns). In Polish service it was strengthened with further two improvised artillery wagons. Because of lack of photographs, a sketch of the wagon below is only approximate.
|Drawing: W. Mroczek|
|improvised artillery wagon||armoured wagon||armoured locomotive||armoured wagon|
The armoured train, as a military unit, consisted of an armoured section (the armoured train in a strict meaning), and an unarmoured auxiliary section. The auxiliary section, consisting of dozen or so wagons, was supporting the operation of the combat section in respect of logistics and accommodation, and did not take part in combat.
|Armoured locomotive Ov series of the "Generał Dowbor", with armour partially dismounted.|
The "Generał Dowbor" had an armoured steam locomotive of the standard Russian OV class, with D (0-4-0) axle arrangement, with a tender. However, despite similar armour, it was not the original locomotive of Hunhuz type trains, but a locomotive made in the same railway workshops in Kiev, according to an improved design, for the train No. 4 of the 4th Siberian Railway Battalion, completed in November 1915 (constructed by Eng. Ball). This train then served in the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic as "Sichovyi Strilets" (the first with this name). The armouring of the locomotive generally corresponded to the standard Hunhuz type trains, but it differed mainly in the tender, which received an opening gable roof and different construction of the passage between the tender and the booth (with a small counter booth on the tender). The visual difference was also the cylindrical housing of the sandbox between the chimney and the steam collector, which was absent in standard locomotives.
The locomotive was all covered with armour of boiler steel 16 mm thick, or 12 mm in less exposed areas. On the locomotive there was a command post, with electric signalling (colour lights and bells in wagons) and voice pipes.
|Inside view of Russian late version Hunhuz armoured wagon, towards the turret (there are machine guns in corner slits instead of earlier loopholes at the end). Visible are standard Russian 7.62 mm Maxim machine guns, and the central cooling system.|
The core of the "General Dowbor" train, just like Russian Hunhuz type armoured trains, consisted of two two-axle armoured wagons built on the basis of flatcars. The wagons were covered with armor from 12 to 16 mm thick, however, made of ordinary steel (boiler steel with increased strength), not armour steel. The internal space of the wagon was divided into two parts: the machine gun compartment and the cannon turret. In each side wall there were five round loopholes for heavy machine guns - two of them were located higher above the axis and three lower in the middle part. In the center of the wagon, the floor was lowered in the form of a box below the frame. The wagons apparently had a door in the rear wall, and they had emergency hatches in the bottom.
Each wagon was originally armed with a Russian 76.2 mm mountain gun (3 in) model 1904 in a conical turret at the end of the wagon. Its barrel length was L/13 and it could fire up to 4,267 m. Horizontal angle of fire was about 220°. Ammunition carried was 105 rounds per cannon (originally 80 shrapnells and 25 grenades). There were no cannons in the wagons incorporated into the "Generał Dowbor" – they had probably been dismantled earlier, perhaps as inoperative, because there is no mention of them, and the carriages were described as machine gun cars (model 1904 cannon itself was manufactured in limited quantity in Russia). The photographs show that in one wagon the turret was replaced by fixed cover of similar shape with ambrazures for additional machine guns.
In the main compartment of the wagon there were 12 heavy machine shooting through simple loopholes, five firing at each side, and two in the end wall next to the artillery turret, firing straight along the track. The firing angle of the machine guns in simple loopholes must have been small. The wagons of two later-built trains had, instead of loopholes in the front wall, horizontal slits in raised corners of the superstructure, providing a greater angle of fire. Originally, the Austrian 8 mm Schwarzlose heavy machine guns were used, later replaced with the standard Russian 7.62 mm Maxim. To cool the barrels during shooting, there was a special system of pipes supplying water from the tender to the barrel cooler of each machine gun. Standard ammunition stock was 1,500 rounds per barrel.
Wagons had heaters made of 1-inch pipes, mounted on the floor along walls, supplied with hot water from a locomotive boiler. Wagon walls were covered with an insulation of 20 mm cork layer and 6 mm plywood layer.
Apart from original Hunhuz-type rolling stock, "General Dowbor" also had other improvised armoured wagons. First was an artillery wagon, armed with the Russian 76.2 mm field gun (almost certainly model 1902; according to reports it was "8 cm Russian gun"). Unfortunately, there are no known photos of this wagon. According to a report, it was closed goods wagon, provisionally armoured with Russian machine gun shields (they might be trench shields in fact rather than irregular shields of Sokolov Maxim machine gun mount). The gun was probably fixed in a front wall of the wagon, with small angle of fire, because it was often way of mounting guns in such improvised wagons. According to one account, this wagon was built just in several days after capturing the train [note 1].
In June – July 1919, a four-axle flatcar was provisionally armoured in Zdolbuniv workshops and assigned to "General Dowbor". It was armed with the Russian 76.2 mm field gun (again almost certainly model 1902, according to reports it was "8cm Russian gun"), and another Austrian field gun of similar caliber. One of these guns might be turning.
Apart from these artillery wagons, the train was also equipped with provisionally protected box wagon for ammunition and staff.
Each armoured train, considered as a military unit, also included an unarmoured auxiliary section. The auxiliary section accompanied the combat section in operational movements and provided it with an accomodation and logistics support. It usually consisted of coaches for officers, box wagons for soldiers, supply wagons, an ambulance coach, a kitchen coach, workshop wagons, coal wagons, water tankers and others, hauled by ordinary locomotive. There is no exact information about "General Dowbor" auxiliary train.
Our thanks for Krzysztof Margasiński
All corrections, comments, additional information or pictures are welcome – especially from Russian researchers of armoured trains.
1. It is not clear whether the improvised wagon with the Russian 76.2 mm field gun, built on the basis of a covered freight wagon, had been already in the composition of the "Sichovyi Strilets" or was only added in the Polish service. Account of Lt. Col. Podhorski from the Krechowce Uhlan Regiment does not answer this question clearly, but only implies that the captured train already had a wagon with a cannon, along with a second improvised wagon for ammunition and staff, and the crew for the gun was immediately completed from ranks of the mounted artillery. He also wrote about the Ukrainian train "bombing" Radyviliv and Brody, although it is not a definite argument. In turn, an account from 1922 by an unknown author states that after the capture, the crew of the train along with railway workers armoured the covered wagon within two days and placed a cannon in it. The author however probably joined the crew later and was not a witness. The earliest photograph of the train with the name "Krechowiak" shows a covered wagon attached to its front, which might confirm that it was a cannon wagon and that the train was captured with it (according to Podhorski, the name was changed on the next day after its capture, when the train was towed to Brody).
1. "Pociagi pancerne 1918-1943", Bialystok 1999
2. Maksym Kolomiets: «Hunhuz» - pervyi bronepoyezd, "Modelist-Konstruktor" nr. 8/1994
3. Maksym Kolomiets: Pociągi Pancerne Armii Rosyjskiej 1914 - 1917, "Militaria" Vol.1 Nr 4 (1993)
4. Maksym Kolomiets: Russkiye bronepoyezda Piervoi Mirovoi. "Stalnye kreposti" v boyu; Moscow, 2013
5. Yaroslav Tinchenko: Pancyrni potiahy, pancyrnyky ta zaliznychny viyska u vyzvolniy viyny 1917-1920 rr.; Kiev, 2012
6. Adam Jońca: Polskie Pociągi Pancerne 1921-1939, Warsaw: Vesper, 2020
All the photos and pictures remain the property of their owners. They are published in non-commercial educational and research purpose.
Text copyright to Waldemar Mroczek and Michal Derela, 2004-2021.