|Armoured vehicles of the 10th Cavalry Brigade during manouvres in September 1938, showing both types of SP-guns. The first is the TKS-D tank destroyer with an ammunition trailer, behind it - the TKD self-propelled gun. In a background there are at least seven tankettes, mostly TKS model note 1.|
Before World War II, the Polish Army did not use self-propelled guns as a typical armament (not counting a dozen of old anti-aircraft SP-guns). Nevertheless, during this period there were used six experimental SP-guns of two models: TKD and TK-SD, developed on a tankette base. The later of them had a chance of entering a series production, and two prototypes took part in fighting in September 1939. There was also an interesting tank destroyer project PZInż.160, which did not reach a prototype stage.
|Carden-Loyd Mk.VI with 47 mm Vickers gun.|
|The TKD light SP-gun in post-1936 camouflage.|
|The TKD during manouvres in 1938, camouflaged with branches.|
In 1931, the TK (TK-3) tankette was adopted by the Polish Army as a standard equipment. It was Polish far development of British Carden-Loyd Mk.VI tankette idea, not copying the original vehicle, though. The British tankette was advertised also in a light self-propelled gun variant, with a short-barrel 47mm Vickers QF cavalry gun. From the beginning, the Polish military planned, that a self-propelled gun would be developed from the Polish tankette as well. It was meant for cavalry brigades as a support and anti-tank weapon.
Works upon the self-propelled gun started in the Armoured Weapons Construction Bureau of the Army Engineer Research Institute (BK Br.Panc. WIBI) in Warsaw at the end of 1931, under direction of Jan Łapuszewski. It was designated the TKD (D for Polish działo – cannon), also written as TK-D or T.K.D. in documents. Since they were to be experimental vehicles, it was decided to arm them with Polish 47 mm wz.25 Pocisk infantry gun, which had been built in a short series only. It was the first modern gun designed in Poland, in Pocisk ammunition and arms factory. The gun competed against foreign infantry guns with a success, but did not enter service eventually, since the Polish Army changed its requirements in 1930 and resigned of introducing infantry guns with low anti-tank capabilities. Four stored guns were next mounted in TKD vehicles, and subsequently adopted by the Polish Army (it was the only usage of Pocisk guns).
In May 1932, there was built the first TKD vehicle (no. 1159), followed by three others in June, in order to assess a design and usage of SP-guns. Because of their experimental status, they were converted from TK tankettes of the information series, built of a mild steel, and such cheaper steel was used for conversion as well (at least for the first vehicle, but probably for all). According to newer research, they carried numbers: 1163, 1165 and 1166 (in older publications there were quoted: 1156–1158). Therefore, TKD vehicles were not armoured, except original gun shields.
Already in June 1932 it was proposed to add one TKD to each tankette platoon in the future, but it was not proceeded. Instead, four existing vehicles formed an experimental TKD platoon, subordinated to the Experimental Armoured-Motorized Group, and from 1934 until 1939 to the 11th Experimental Armoured Battalion in the Armoured Weapons' Training Centre in Modlin near Warsaw. The TKD platoon was quite intensively used in manoeuvres, starting from exercises of the 2nd Cavalry Division near Drohiczyn on 19-20 August 1932. During these exercises it was used as an anti-tank platoon, and evaluated well. After multi-divisional exercises in Pomerania in 1934, there was made a conclusion, that it was advisable to equip big cavalry formations with ten TKD, including four as an anti-tank platoon. The trials showed, that the TKD met tactical requirements well, but the vehicle construction was not too succesfull itself. First of all, its gun had too weak armour penetration and was not adopted as a typical weapon. A drawback must have been also a small size, limiting the crew number, what made manning of the gun more difficult, and probably limiting ammunition load as well. Therefore, no more TKD were produced.
In summer 1937, the TKD platoon was assigned to the motorized 10th Cavalry Brigade, for exercises in Barycz near Kielce. In September it took part in exercises in Pomerania, assigned to the Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade. By mid-1938 the TKD platoon was assigned to the anti-tank platoon of newly created reconnaissance unit of the 10th Cavalry Brigade; however, according to some sources, there were only two TKD in the platoon by then, along with two TKS-D[4, 5]. They were used in exercises of the 10th Cavalry Brigade in Barycz in August 1938, then in big manouvres in Wołyń (Volhynia) in September 1938. According to a new publication, TKD vehicles returned to Modlin afterwards and did not take part in regaining of Czech Zaolzie province in October 1938, as most publications traditionally claimed.
|The TKD abandoned in September 1939.|
|TKD sketch [by J. Magnuski , much corrected]|
|Two ouf of four TKD taking part in the Independence Day parade in Warsaw, 11. 11. 1934, in early camouflage.|
The further fate of TKD vehicles during World War II is not known. They remained in the training centre in Modlin near Warsaw by the war, and probably were scheduled for withdrawal (they were not assigned new licence numbers in April 1939). They were not used in the motorized 10th Cavalry Brigade anymore. According to some questionable information, they could have taken part in Warsaw defence in 1939, but it is not confirmed. More probably two vehicles were assigned to an anti-tank platoon of the reconnaissance unit of the Warsaw Armoured-Motorized Brigade (WBP-M) during a mobilization in late August 1939, because there were reported two "anti-tank guns in tanks". Their usage is not known. There are only known photographs of one TKD with the gun removed, abandoned on some unknown country road. It is not known, whether it is one of the WBP-M vehicles or remaining ones, and if they were used as armed vehicles, or tractors. The TKD capabilities in a real combat were limited by the fact, that they were not armoured. The other thing was a limited supply of ammunition, produced along the first batch of guns only.
A construction of a chassis and transmission was the same, as in the TK-3 tankette, only a suspension was strengthened and wider 170 mm tracks were adopted because of a mass increased to some 3 tons. The photographs show, that original 140 mm width TK-3 tracks were also used, though. An engine was original 40 hp petrol Ford A, placed longitudinally in a center of the combat compartment, between crew seats. Maximum speed was probably somewhat lower, than the tankette's (36 km/h according to one publication).
The TKD had an open combat compartment, with flat side plates, slightly inclined. The crew was apparently two (there was no place to sit for more crewmen). The driver sat on the left side of the vehicle, the commander-gunner on the right side. Sides covered the crew only while sitting. It should be noted, that existing prototypes were built of mild steel. Both crewmen had one large window in the front plate and a window in a side plate, all covered by hatches.
The gun, with its lightly armoured shield (4 mm according to one publication), was mounted centrally in an opening of the front superstructure plate, on a reinforced base (the gun retained its original shield, albeit with clipped bottom corners; it withstood armour-piercing rifle bullets from above 300 m). The gun had a vertical angle of fire -12+23° and small horizontal angle of fire (4° to each side according to one publication). The elevation was limited by the engine behind the gun. A lower edge of the barrel in horizontal position was 1255 mm above the ground. The ammunition carried was 55 rounds according to J. Magnuski, although it may raise some doubt in a view of very limited space inside. According to some authors, also 7.92 mm wz.28 Browning light machine gun was carried inside, without any mounting.
The gun had a penetration of 25 mm at 750 m, but this result was obtained during tests against low strength plates. There is no information as for a barrel length or round dimensions in available publications.
|The TKD in a camouflage used from 1936, with wider tracks.|
|TKD platoon in an early camouflage (until 1936). In front there is a motorcycle CWS M111 (Sokol 1000)||The TKD during manouvres in Volhynia in 1938.|
|The TKS tested with 37 mm wz.18 gun in 1936 (towed by the 7TP tank prototype – click for a wider scene). A disc is a tactical marking.|
In 1936, one TKS tankette (no. 1585) was tested with a short-barrel 37mm wz.18 Puteaux (SA.18) gun, mounted in an universal round mounting in a place of the machine gun, on the right side (on the photograph). There are no details nor conclusion of these trials known, but it was apparently not adopted, and the tankette was rearmed back. The SA.18 gun had a low velocity and poor anti-tank capabilities, but such vehicles might have served as a support for ordinary tankettes. It is probable however, that there was a problem with asymmetrical overloading and recoil to some extent.
The publications claim, that also the TKD was tested with an "anti tank variant" of 37 mm SA.18 Puteaux gun. There are no other details given, and the TKD had a better gun already, so we suspect, that it may concern the TKS tankette in fact, described above.
There is an unclear issue of testing the TKD no. 1159 with 47mm Vickers QF tank gun, mentioned in publications. According to one author, it was tested in 1934, and the gun was mounted on the right side of the vehicle. The given date raises doubt, because the TKD already had a similar class gun, and first of all, better – centrally mounted. On the other hand, there has been revealed a report by Maj. R. Gundlach, that on 11 May 1936, one TKD was tested with 47 mm Vickers gun, provisionally mounted on the right side. It appears, that in this case a purpose was solely to gather experience for eventual mounting of 37 mm wz.36 Bofors gun in the tankette. The trials were not successful, because the gun mounted asymmetrically caused 140 kg overload to the right side, resulting in self-turning, and each shot caused 5° rotation of the vehicle.
|The first TKS-D on a parade before the President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki and the King of Romania Carol II, 27 June 1937.|
|The second TKS-D, with higher sides. Note also different shape of fenders and sponsons over the tracks, horizontal in rear part. The vehicle is towing an ammunition trailer and a gun carriage.|
|The first TKS-D during trials in 1937, with a driver only.|
|The first TKS-D fording a river during trials in 1937.|
|The first TKS-D from the front angle.|
The later, more sophisticated self-propelled gun on the tankette base, was the TKS-D, also written in documents as TK-SD, T.K.S.D. or "C2P armoured tractor", designed in Armoured Weapons' Technical Research Bureau (BBT Br.Panc.) in Warsaw. Its development process was not typical, because it was first conceived as an armoured tractor for a modern 37mm wz.36 Bofors anti-tank gun, which was accepted as a basic Polish anti-tank weapon. It was planned, that the gun could be dismounted from its carriage and mounted on an armoured tractor. The tractor could tow the gun carriage then and fire the gun from the tractor in need. However, judging from photographs, TKS-D vehicles were used in service with guns mounted on them only, what allowed to utilize tactical advantages of the self-propelled gun. Despite it was considered as a tractor at first, it became one of the world's first specialized tank destroyers. Its advantage was very small silhouette and size, especially its small height (see a comparision sketch of small tank destroyers).
The TKS-D design was based upon a light artillery tractor C2P, developed from a modified TKS tankette chassis. It differed from the TKS in a presence of side clutches in a transmission, and bigger idler wheels, which were last roadwheels as well. This gave the C2P and TKS-D better traction. The works were initiated by the Armoured Weapons in February 1936. Main designers were Jan Łapuszewski and H. Lipko, under direction of Maj. Rudolf Gundlach. By May 1937 the first TKS-D prototype was completed, built upon a chassis of the second C2P prototype nr. 8897 (used for tests of an experimental telephone cable layer C2P variant, probably rebuilt from the TKS in 1934). Older publications claimed, that at the same time, the second prototype was rebuilt from the prototype tankette TKS-B nr. 1510, already fitted with the new running gear. However, according to newer sources, the second prototype, with different welded body, was rebuilt from the first C2P tractor prototype nr. 8898 "Tygrys", at uknown time (probably late 1937).
The TKS-D had relatively long armoured hull. Most of it constituted an open crew compartment. Since the gun sight and aiming mechanism were on the left side, a driver's seat and an engine radiator at the rear were moved to the right side of the vehicle, comparing with the C2P. Both TKS-D prototypes differed significantly in the hull shape – the second one had higher side walls, sloped inwards in upper part, and a different front part. A special two-wheel unarmoured ammunition trailer was also developed in 1937, carrying 120 rounds (24 crates with five rounds). The TKS-D could tow the ammunition trailer and a gun carriage behind it (photographs from exercises in 1938 show the vehicles without gun carriages, what suggests, that the idea of removing the gun from the carrier was rightfully abandoned). Some sources claimed, that the trailer carried 80 rounds (16 crates), but there is undoubtedly a confusion with a special armoured trailer, built in December 1936 to carry ammunition and three men (there was considered a motorization of 37 mm Bofors guns using ordinary TK/TKS tankettes as tractors towing such trailers and guns, but the idea appeared unfeasible).
In 1937-38, both TKS-D were tested in the Training Centre in Modlin. By summer of 1938 they were assigned, along with the TKD platoon, to the reconnaissance unit (Dywizjon Rozpoznawczy) of the motorized 10th Cavalry Brigade, and were used in exercises of the brigade in Barycz near Kielce in August, and then in manouvres in Volhynia in September 1938. Then, both TKS-D took part in the action of regaining the Czech Zaolzie province in October (it was inhabited by the Polish majority and captured by Czechoslovakia by force in 1919, although the Polish government chose a shameful moment of Munich treaty to take it back). The province was taken over without fighting, on a forced "agreement" with the Czech government.
A series production of the TKS-D was considered, but have not been ordered eventually. A price of the TKS-D was estimated at 65,000 złotys (including 33,000-40,000 złotys basic tractor cost). In spite of lower price, than of PZInz.160 project (below), it was considered in 1938 as very expensive way of transporting the 37 mm gun, and not offering full protection against armour piercing rifle bullets. The head of the construction bureau, Maj. Gundlach suggested to carry out further works to design a carrier on a special chassis, immune against 7.9 mm AP bullets (it should be noted however, that such demands were met by the PZInż.160, rejected before).
A fate of TKS-D prototypes had been a mystery in literature for a long time, and only in 1999 it was researched, that both TKS-D were still present in an anti-tank platoon of the Reconnaissance Unit of the 10th Cavalry Brigade in September 1939, along with four 37 mm Bofors guns towed by wheeled tractors[4,5,7]. Both TKS-D took part in an intensive fighting of the Brigade from 1 September 1939 in Beskidy mountains (south of Poland) against elements of two German armoured divisions – the 4th Panzer Division and the 2nd Leichte Division. They supported and secured Polish troops in delay fighting, although it is not known, whether they actually had skirmishes with enemy armour. It might be noted, that on 2 September they were used as ammunition carriers to advanced positions. One of vehicles was destroyed by artillery on 5 September in Skrzydlna village, the second on 9 September, returning with a patrol to Albigowa town, which had been already captured by Germans.
|A sketch of the first TKS-D [by J. Magnuski , much altered]|
|A brand new TKS-D examined by the King of Romania Carol II and prince Michael on 27 June 1937, at Okęcie airfield, during their visit to Poland. Noteworthy is small height of the vehicle. There are visible short sloped upper side walls next to the gun's cover on the left and driver's post on the right. The engine cover is visible inside the vehicle, and a muffler at the rear.|
Armament: one anti-tank gun 37 mm wz.36 Bofors, mounted in front of the vehicle, protected by armoured cover. Horizontal angle of fire was 24°, vertical angle of fire: -9+13°. According to Maj. Gundlach's report from 1938, ammunition carried in the vehicle were 60 rounds, additional 120 rounds were carried in the trailer (some publications claim that 68 rounds were carried, and 80 in the trailer, which is wrong – see above).
Armour: the body was made of rolled armour plates, from 4 mm (sloped plates) to 6 mm thick, with an open top. Lower hull might have been made of ordinary steel, like in basic tractors.
The body was screwed in the first prototype and welded in the second prototype. Side walls protected the crew only partially (up to arms level in the first model and to half of heads in the second model). The gun was protected with a fixed front armour and small movable shield on the barrel, covering an opening in the front armour. The gun front armour was asymmetrical – placed to the left side of the vehicle, but the gun was in fact mounted centrally. There were windows with hatches in front of the commander and the driver.
The crew was four. On the right to the gun there was the driver's seat, with a recessed plate before him. On the left side of the vehicle, there sat a gunner in front, who was probably the commander, behind him – a loader (sitting backwards), and the fourth crewman. (It might be noted, that the fourth crewman was in fact redundant, and his task was to pass ammunition, when the gun was deployed. There was even the crew of five envisaged for the TKS-D in the 10th Cavalry Brigade, but such number could not travel in the vehicle due to a lack of space – it is not clear).
Behind the driver on the right there was most probably a place for ammunition crates, and the water radiator with a fan at the rear. The engine was placed longitudinally centrally in the rear of the combat compartment, under a rounded cover. A gearbox and drive mechanisms were in front, before the engine. A canvas top could be raised above the crew compartment. The vehicle had no radio.
Engine: Polski FIAT-122B - petrol, 6 cylinder inline, 4 stroke, water-cooled, 46 HP at 2600 rpm, capacity 2952 cm³. Transmission: dry single-disc main clutch, mechanical gearbox, 4 forward gears, 1 reverse gear, side clutches with band brakes, side drives. Fuel tank - 70 l.
Suspension: blocked of two two-wheel bogeys on each side, sprung with pairs of small leaf springs in each bogey. Bogeys were sliding in a suspension frame, and sprung with a main leaf spring, fixed centrally to the hull side. The sprocket wheel was in front. The idler wheel at the rear, mounted on the suspension frame, and sprung by a helical spring, was also the last roadwheel. There were four return rollers on each side.
|TKS-D during manouvres in Volhynia in 1938.||The second TKS-D during exercises.|
The tank destroyer PZInż.160 was designed at the state-owned Państwowe Zakłady Inżynierii (State Engineering Works) as an alternative for the TKS-D, on demand of the Armoured Weapons. A preliminary sketch was made in November 1936. It based on a modern chassis from a vehicle family developed by Edward Habich, used in prototypes of the light tank 4TP (PZInż.140), the amphibious tank PZInż.130 and the artillery tractor PZInż.152. The tank destroyer design based upon the tractor and was given a factory designation PZInż.160. On contrary to the TKS-D, a tank version of 37 mm Bofors gun (wz.37) was envisaged, placed low in a hull, without an option to dismount it. It was to have thicker armour – up to 15 mm, well sloped in front part, and stronger engine, giving it better speed and power-to-weight ratio. Thanks to more modern and bigger chassis, it would offer better obstacle crossing capability, and probably more comfort for the crew.
|An artistic vision of the tank destroyer PZInz.160, made by J. Magnuski, based upon the PZInż.152 tractor photograph (might be not accurate). |
In August 1937 Eng. Habich worked out a corrected design, with higher superstructure walls and two additional 7.92 mm machine guns (one in the front plate and one on anti-aircraft mast in a combat compartment). The design was evaluated by the Armoured Weapons' Technical Research Bureau then, but rejected in a favour of its already built own TKS-D design, mostly because of demand of gun modification, and higher price (a basic tractor chassis alone would cost some 60,000 złotys, comparing to 40,000 złotys or less for the C2P). A point of criticism was also bigger silhouette and fuel consumption, in spite of better armour and performance of the PZInż. 160. (It seems to be unjust dismissal, especially in a view of later conclusion on insufficient armour of the TKS-D, and obvious unfeasibility of creating a vehicle on a special chassis, with heavier armour, but the same size, price and service cost). Estimated cost of a series vehicle was 75,000 złotys. Unfortunately, it seems, that the Polish military have not considered an idea of a pure tank destroyer, two-three times cheaper than a light tank, as an option of defence against overnumbering armoured forces of both potential (and eventual) enemies... As a result, the prototype construction was not ordered and the PZInż.160 remained an interesting project. As for the wz.37 tank gun, its production started by 1938 for the 7TP tank.
Armament: one tank gun 37 mm wz.37 Bofors, mounted low in front of the vehicle, and two 7.92 mm machine guns (presumably standard wz. 25 Hotchkiss). One machine gun was to be mounted in the front sloped plate, above the gun. The second was to be anti-aircraft one, on a mast in a combat compartment. Horizontal angle of fire was to be 24°, gun elevation: -50+20°. A load of 120 gun rounds and 2000 machine gun rounds was envisaged.
Armour and body: welded of rolled armour plates, front: 8 mm (presumably upper slated plate) to 15 mm, sides - 10 mm, rear - 10 mm, bottom - 4-8 mm. The front plate was well sloped, with observation hatches in its upper part. Side walls were flat, lightly slanted. The crew compartment was open above its central part.
Weight: 4.3 t, crew: four, max speed: 50 km/h. The engine, transmission and suspension details were basically the same, as in 4TP tank.
Engine: PZInz.425, power 95 HP at 3600 rpm, 6-cylinder inline, petrol, 4-stroke, displacement 3880 cm³, water-cooled, bore diameter 82mm, stroke 92mm. The engine was placed along on the right side of the vehicle. Transmission - dry multi-disc main clutch, mechanical gearbox, 4 forward gears, 1 reverse gear, side clutches with band brakes, side drives.
Suspension: drive sprocket in the front, idler at the rear. Paired bogey-type suspension. On each side four single roadwheels, rubber-rimmed, blocked in a bogey by two. The roadwheels were suspended on individual suspension arms, sprung by torsion bars. Each pair of wheels in a bogey had one horizontal hydraulical shock absorber. Two return wheels on each side. Single-pin, twin-spur metal tracks, each made of 87 links, link width 260 mm, pitch 90 mm, length of track on the ground 2.1 m, track 1.8 m.
|A reconstructed sketch of the PZInz.160 by J. Magnuski  (might be not accurate, due to lack of original plans). There is a mast with a mounting for anti-aircraft machine gun above the combat compartment.|
See also a comparision sketch of tank destroyers.
|TKS-D in 1938. Author - J.J.[?]|
Polish self-propelled guns were camouflaged in the same way, as other Polish armoured vehicles. Between 1932 and 1936 TKD vehicles were painted in an older camouflage scheme, called the "Japanese" one. There were patches of light blue-gray, yellowish sand and olive green, separated with thin black stripes (described in detail on tankettes part II page).
From mid-1936 Polish vehicles were painted in a standard three-color camouflage scheme, consisting of irregular patches of greyish sand and dark brown over the base color of brown-green. The patches were airbrushed, with soft transitions, the shapes were horizontal mainly. There was not any standard pattern of patches. An interior was probably brown-green.
|Combat weight||3.2 t||2.5 t without gun,|
3.1 t with gun
|Total length||2.58 m||3.26 m||4.7 m|
|Hull length||2.58 m||about 2.85 m||4 m|
|Width||1.785 m||1.8 m||2.1 m|
|Height||1.575 m||1.24 m||1.6 m|
|Ground clearance||30 cm||30 cm||about 32 cm|
|Track width||17 or 14 cm||17 cm||26 cm|
|Distance between track centres||1.455 m||1.45 m||1.8 m|
|Track length||1.27 m||1.75 m||2.1 m|
|Maximum road speed||36 km/h||40-42 km/h||50 km/h|
|Range on roads / off road||200 / 130 km||220 / 120 km||250 / 150 km|
|Fuel consumption||?||?||about 66 l/100 km (4TP tank)|
|Power to weight ratio||12.5 HP/t||14.8 HP/t||about 22 HP/t|
|Ground pressure||0.61 kg/cm²||0,56 kg/cm²||about 0.34 kg/cm² (4TP tank)|
|Wading depth||50 cm||50 cm||about 70 cm|
|Ditch width||about 1 m||1.2 m||1.6 m|
Links to Scalemates website. In italics are wrong names:
1. The well-known title photograph shows the vehicles attached to the motorized 10th Cavalry Brigade during manoeuvres in Volhynia on 8-18 September 1938 (sometimes published with wrong descriptions, eg. as the reoccupation of Zaolzie). It shows both types of self-propelled guns: the TKS-D [tactical number 30] with an ammunition trailer, the TKD [number 34 or 31], and at least seven tankettes. The numbers are only temporary ones. Most of the tankettes are TKS model, but there is at least one TK-3 tankette, obscured by the TKS [number 29]. There is also one soldier on a motorcycle. In deep right background there is the tankette with an auxiliary tracked trailer, previously believed to be another TKS-D. Behind the TKS number 29, there might be a sprocket wheel of one more vehicle visible through a tree branches.
1. Janusz Magnuski, Karaluchy przeciw panzerom, Pelta, Warsaw 1995
2. Leszek Komuda, Przeciwpancerne tankietki in: "Militaria" year 1 Nr 3 and Nr 4.
3. Jan Tarczyński, K. Barbarski, A. Jońca, Pojazdy w Wojsku Polskim - Polish Army Vehicles - 1918-1939; Ajaks; Pruszków 1995.
4. Eugeniusz Piotr Nowak, Dywizjon Rozpoznawczy 10 Brygady Kawalerii 1938-1939, Kraków 1999
5. Eugeniusz Piotr Nowak, Mariusz Skotnicki: Lekkie działo samobieżne TKS-D, in: "Militaria i Fakty" 2/2006
6. Janusz Magnuski, Andrzej Kiński: Następcy TK-S, in: "Militaria i Fakty" 2/2006
7. Jędrzej Korbal: Ciągnik C2P i wyposażenie, series Wielki Leksykon Uzbrojenia - special issue 1/2018, Warsaw: Edipresse Polska 2018
8. Piotr Zarzycki: Działko piechoty 47 mm wz. 1925 "Pocisk", series Wielki Leksykon Uzbrojenia Wrzesień 1939 issue 82, Warsawa: Edipresse Polska 2016
9. Janusz Ledwoch: TK-3/TKS (20 MM) TKD/TKS-D, series Militaria issue 451, Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Militaria 2018
You can mail me with question or comments - corrections or photographs are welcome.
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Text copyright to Michal Derela, © 2004-2019.